1.What’s Ludos Protocol?
The Ludos Protocol is a decentralized solution for game ecosystem. The protocol is mainly composed of three parts:
- The Ludos main chain uses PoW+PoS as its consensus mechanism
- A Plasma-like multisidechain system is implemented to improve scalability
- Games with many thousands of users can perform many complex operations on their own sidechain, with only minimal interaction with the Ludos main chain
Main chain + multi-sidechain infrastructure
- An abstract blockchain interface
- Game assets issuing/operation tool
- A BaaS service for maintaining game sidechains
- Data persistence tool
- Fair pseudorandom number generator, etc.
Toolbox for game developers
- A decentralized game assets exchange
- A game assets management wallet
- A decentralized game distribution platform
- A fair ranking and achievement system
- A game DAICO
- Investment protocol and incentive rule sets for all participants
DApps and incentivized game ecosystem
Ludos will use blockchain technology and token economy to reform the game industry, enhance the flow of resources between upstream and downstream industries, provide game players with a more transparent gaming environment, and bring more customer flow and new opportunities to developers.
2.What are Ludos’s goals?
Games and DApps (decentralized exchanges, player communities, etc.) will be run on individual and decentralized sidechains.
Blockchain game developers will be provided with friendly APIs and SDKs; therefore, they will be able to focus on developing core logic but not on minor, infrastructure-level issues.
Large-scale applications (games) with low GAS costs and high throughput will be supported.
Sidechain applications can be updated, can build autonomy, and can even fork themselves. Data of these applications can also be shared.
3.Why does Ludos choose to use main chain + multi-sidechain?
Ludos takes the intensive-interaction and real-time requirements of game scenario into consideration. The Ludos Protocol uses a highly decentralized main chain with PoW+PoS consensus mechanism, which is assisted by multiple sidechains with independent consensus mechanisms, security levels, throughput, and data storage methods to balance security and efficiency.
Ludos main chain is only used for the deployment of sidechain root contracts, token/assets issuing, and settlement of transactions. Meanwhile, main chain can also serve as a judge to ensure the safe exit of digital assets during a malicious attack. The execution of specific operations (games, independent functions) is handled by high throughput sidechains.
4.What does Ludos’s main chain choose as the consensus mechanism?
Ludos will eventually transit from PoW+PoS to pure PoS system. The difference between PoW and PoS is that in the PoW case, users buy real computers that consume energy and calculate blocks at a rate proportional to costs. The subject of purchase in the PoS case is virtual coins inside the system, which are then converted into virtual computers calculating blocks. Under this approach, the probability of signing a block depends not on the processing power, but on the number of coins on the account of a user-validator. However, currently, PoS is facing issues such as the “nothing at stake” attack and potential centralization problems. Few public chains ever successfully rely solely on PoS.
Ludos chose to use PoW+PoS as the consensus mechanism during the transition period: currently, Ludos main chain will use PoS consensus to finalize at 50 block intervals with two-thirds of the network voting on the validity of the network, so a 51% percent attack will have much smaller risk and become less rewardable. Thus, the PoW+PoS mechanism can maximize the participation of miners and ordinary users, benefiting both parties. Additionally, the PoS mechanism encourages holders of LUD Tokens to keep these coins in their wallets instead of trading them on the exchange. This will help users focus on Ludos’s technology and ecology rather than on short-term profits from market volatility.
5.What’s the sidechain scalability solution?
Ludos will give an implementation of the Plasma Protocol – Ludos Plasma. The goal is to transfer a large amount of calculations of smart contracts of Ludos’s functions or games to sidechains instead of executing them on Ludos’s main chain. Sidechains can be implemented with relatively fewer nodes or can be weekly centralized, and sidechains can also adopt PoA or DPoS as the consensus mechanism (the sidechain maintainer can choose the consensus mechanism that best meets its requirements according to the actual situation). As a result, the amount of TPS may reach up to thousands.
This scalability solution is indeed an Off-Chain Trading technology. Ludos’s main chain will ensure its security. This proposal will allow the creation of sidechains linked to the main chain. These sidechains in turn can produce their own sidechains, and these sidechains can also produce next-gen sidechains. As a result, we can perform many complex operations on the sidechain level, such as running games with thousands of users when the sidechain has as few interactions as possible with the Ludos main chain. These sidechains operate faster and are characterized by lower transaction costs because their operations do not require saving a copy on the entire Ludos blockchain.
6.What does the game company need to do if the company based on the Ludos platform wants to develop a blockchain card game based on the Ludos Protocol (e.g., Hearthstone)?
1. Create corresponding digital assets, that is, cards, that will comply with the LRC721 standard (a virtual item protocol running on Ludos like ERC721 in Ethereum) on the Ludos main chain;
2. Create a set of smart contracts on the Ludos main chain (the Ludos platform will provide basic templates and API) as the root contract of corresponding sidechains. The root contract will contain the game’s rules of state updating, record the hash of the state of the sidechain, and include rules for transferring assets between the main chain and sidechains.
3. Create a sidechain using the BaaS service provided by Ludos and select one preferred consensus mechanism for the sidechain (details below). At the same time, it must select the appropriate network architecture and node operation mode to start the operation of the sidechain.
7.What can state channels do?
State channels are a very broad and simple way to think about blockchain interactions which could occur on the blockchain, but instead get conducted off of the blockchain, without significantly increasing the risk of any participant.
The most well known example of this strategy is the idea of payment channels(Lightning Network) in Bitcoin. State channels are the general form of payment channels, applying the same idea to any kind of state-altering operation normally performed on a blockchain.
Ludos moves certain interactions off of the chain without requiring any additional trust, which lead to significant improvements in cost and speed. Events occurring within state channels will be highly secured and immutable: if there is any problem, Ludos can always choose to roll back to the on-chain transactions’ previous state, close the channels, and release the locked assets.
8.Why is Ludos required to have the capability to interact across blockchains, and how to do it?
To realize the decentralization of the game ecosystem, games from third-party public chains must be considered when we design the Ludos Protocol. Cross-chain technology that enables us to launch a decentralized exchange is required if cross-chain assets’ trading system is to be realized. Another issue is that to distribute the digital assets of other blockchain networks (such as Bitcoin and Ethereum) or to execute cross-chain smart contracts in a decentralized manner according to the outcome of the game, Ludos is required to have the capability to interact across blockchains.
Ludos relies on the Sidechain/Relay mechanism to achieve basic cross-chain functionality while combining the advantages of the three technical solutions including notary schemes， sidechains/relays and hash-locking to achieve automatic cross-chain digital asset trading trustlessly. In the cross-chain mechanism, Ludos will include the following features:
- Portable assets
- Atomic swap
- Cross-chain oracle issues
- Asset encumbrance
- General cross-chain smart contracts
Many difficulties can be encountered in cross-chain technology. However, trustless asset transfer across blockchains can be achieved at the expense of some degree of efficiency in the verification of cross-chain SPVs
Cross-chain smart contracts face more technical difficulties, and Ludos will dedicate more efforts to improving the Multi-Sig Notary Schemes and Distributed Private Key Control to achieve a decentralized game ecosystem that is compatible with most games.
9. How does the .bc codec agreement of recording virtual items on blockchain support designers and artists?
The .bc (dot blockchain) codec is a set of protocols that allows game designers, graphic designers, musicians, and other virtual content creators to use smart contract to price, attribute, and manage their works, and to record these data on blockchains.
In the future, the Ludos platform will have many games that support individual designers and artists in a decentralized way, especially VR-based games that need high-quality content producers and designers to provide players with fresh and fun 3D virtual items.
Designers can post their work via a .bc codec protocol to the Ludos platform and set prices, payment methods, properties, and background stories freely. Digital works are uniquely recorded on the blockchain.
10.What is DAICO protocol？
A DAICO contract is issued by a development team that needs to raise funds. A DAICO contract first needs a Contribution Mode to specify a mechanism: everyone can contribute LUD Tokens to the contract and get the corresponding tokens. Capped Sales, Uncapped Sales, Dutch Auction, Interactive Token Releases, KYC-dynamic Cap Sales or customized sales plans designed by the team are all supported. After the contribution phase, no more LUD Tokens can be contributed. The initial token balance will be set, and the token can be traded later.
At the end of the contribution phase, the contract has a main state variable: tap (unit: go/sec; go is the Ludos currency system’s minimum unit), with an initial value of zero. Tap determines the amount that the development team can withdraw from the contract per second. It is implemented as follows:
tap: num(go / sec)
lastWithdrawn: timestamp # initialized by the end time of contribution
@public def withdraw():
send(self.owner, (block.timestamp - self. lastWithdrawn) * self.tap)
self.lastWithdrawn = block.timestamp
@private def modify_tap(new_tap: num(go / sec)):
self.tap = new_tap
Meanwhile, a mechanism that allows token holders to reach a solution by voting also exists. Two solutions are offered:
- Increase the tap value
- Initiate self-destruction of the smart contract permanently (more precisely, it starts the Withdrawal Mode, and the remaining LUD Tokens can be withdrawn to coin holders pro rata)
Both solutions can be initiated with a majority vote (e.g.: yes - no - absent / 6 > 0). Note that you cannot lower the tap value by voting. Owners can voluntarily lower the tap value, but they cannot unilaterally increase the tap value.
The purpose of this is to give the development team a reasonable but not too high monthly budget. If the team continues to demonstrate its capabilities, the budget can be increased by voting. If voters are dissatisfied with the team’s development progress, they can close the DAICO and get back their funds.
11. What’s the Ludos global ecology for blockchain game investment and incubation?
Game developers can announce game projects on the Ludos platform, initiate ICO, raise early development funds, and ensure users’ participation from an early stage. Developers with user support can easily develop and distribute their own games.
The Ludos platform is dedicated to creating an environment where every developer can survive, grow, and succeed.
The Ludos platform complies with Ethereum founder Vitalik’s DAICO mode.
12.What’s the Ludos decentralized game digital asset trading ecology?
1. Purchase of game currency
The game currency of certain games will be treated as a digital asset and recorded on the blockchain. The total amount of game currency can be either increased at a reasonable rate or kept constant. All transactions can be settled on the blockchain, and all transaction records can be reviewed and kept traceable and tamperproof.
2. In-game asset transactions
The key asset of a game must be recorded on blockchains. However, other items, such as in-game weapons and in-game gold coins can be traded in a centralized manner. This trading needs to be regularly packaged, and the hash values need to be stored on the Ludos blockchain.
The combination of on-chain settlement and offchain, high-frequency trading ensures both the performance of the game and the efficiency of the main chain..
3. Cross-game asset trading
Ludos’s decentralized game exchange integrates all digital assets based on the Ludos blockchain and provides a secondary market in a user-friendly manner to ensure liquidity.
Digital assets of different games were originally isolated. Ludos’s decentralized exchange will provide these assets with liquidity and market value. A separate piece of equipment of a game might be valuable to investors.
When players decide to invest in another game, they can also refund their digital assets from one game on the exchange and then purchase new assets for the new game to achieve a seamless migration to the new game.
Ludos’s decentralized exchange technology uses a combination of off-chain, high-frequency order matching and on-chain settlement. Ludos will not host the users’ digital assets, thus ensuring both the user experience and security.
13. Who are the ecological participants in Ludos decentralized game incentive mechanism?
Ludos’s ecology is open to any practitioners, investors, and gamers. Everyone can participate in advancing the game industry toward a new era by contributing value to the community.
Participants’ roles can be categorized as game developers, game publishers, Ludos communities (a platform founding team, a marketing team, a developer community, a decentralized live platform, a decentralized game digital asset exchange), investors, artists (graphic designers, 3D designers, storyline designers, and numerical design experts), gamers, analysts, communicators (Platform introducer, Game Searcher), and other service providers (customer service, operators of the exchange and live platforms, bug finders, game consultants, etc..).
14. What is the function of LUD token?
1. Transaction fee
Any operation that causes a status change in the Ludos blockchain will be charged a transaction fee in the form of an LUD Token.
In the Ludos ecology, all expenses such as advertising fees, purchase of games, and creation of games will be priced by LUD. LUD Token will function as a natural trading medium for decentralized trading scenarios of digital assets and issued tokens based on the Ludos blockchain.
Governance rules, polling activities in the community, and the selection of coins listed on exchanges accept LUD Token as a voting certificate. Ludos's wallet app is able to help lock tokens, enabling users to vote anywhere at any time.
4. Participate in DAICO
Game developers can launch DAICO based on LUD Tokens. Participants will need to purchase and donate LUD Tokens to the relevant address to get a token or a virtual item asset that can be used in future games. This process is similar to using Ethereum eth on the Ethereum network to participate in ICO and obtain the ERC20 token.
15.What’re the level 2 token DLV’s design principles?
The role of the DLV will be similar to Alipay’s Sesame Credit, and its design principles will be as follows:
- DLV holders will receive LUD as a fixed income on a regular basis
- DLV cannot be freely transferred between accounts
- LUDs can be locked to get the corresponding DLV
- DLV unlocking to LUD takes 90days, gradually released
- DLV cannot be traded freely on the exchange
- DLV represents the user's credit and influence on Ludos platform. Users holding DLV will automatically receive more equity and related benefits.
16. How does the Ludos incentive system operate?
Before Ludos’s main network is launched, LUD tokens based on the ERC20 standard will be circulated within the community. The incentive system will use a portion of pre-mined 10 billion LUD tokens. After the launch of the Ludos main network, LUD tokens will be mapped to the main network one by one. Meanwhile, the mining reward and verification reward will be activated. The ecology system will also use coins from the newly produced block (accounting for 70% of the total block) as incentive. The Ludos system will enter a new stage of slow inflation. The inflation rate will be controlled within 10% at the beginning of the year and will decrease until 1% percent in 10 years. The total number of LUD Tokens will eventually be stabilized at around 15 billion.
17. What’s the allocation plan of incentive ecology?
After the launch of Ludos’s main network: 20% of the rewards from producing new blocks will be given to miners or validators.
Additionally, 10% of the rewards will be distributed to DLV holders.
The remaining 70% will be used as an incentive mechanism in the prize pool. Each module of Ludos will have its own prize pool, and the funds of the main pool will flow into each sub-pool at a certain rate.
The initial proportion of each sub-pool is designed as below:
Decentralized gaming 25%
Developer community 15%
Content maker(artist)community 10%
Ranking and achievement rewards 30%
Game crowd-funding/ICOs 5%
Incentivized advertisement 10%
It will be difficult to use smart contracts to realize dynamic adjustments. Therefore, at the beginning of Ludos’s development, the Ludos community will reveal an update plan every month for the whole community to vote on.